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语文实用类文本阅读题得分技巧总结;
时间:2018年12月26日

语文实用类文本阅读题得分技巧总结;
 
 
三、调查报告阅读方法
 
  1.快速准确地把握调查报告的内容。
 
  (1)迅速准确阅读文章第一段(开头部分),把握调查的对象、内容。
 
  (2)阅读全文,了解清楚事件的起因、发展和结果。注意事件的细节。
 
  (3)重点精读一些调查者总结收集的数据,调查者发表议论的部分,深入研究其核心内容。
 
  (4)整合文中的信息、把握文章结构、概括中心意思与其他类型的文章读解分析方法一样。
 
  2.注意调查报告中观点与材料的统一。调查报告是在叙述中把观点表达出来的,即在事实材料的基础上,得出观点。因此,我们要注意在阅读中把握好文章中的材料与观点的统一问题。
 
  (1)运用一个或几个典型材料说明观点。我们要注意材料的典型性,同时也要注意材料内部的相互逻辑关系,从不同的角度和侧面说明观点。
 
  (2)运用对比的材料来突出观点。这种对比,可以今昔、新旧、正反和成败等的对比。通过不同事物不同方面的对比,能够更好地突出事物特点,更好地划清是非界线,突出观点。对比还可以是具体的事实,也可以是统计数字、百分比。
 
  (3)用精确的数字来直接说明观点。基本统计数字、百分比,都可以反映事物的面貌和实质,可以增强说服力。在运用统计数字说明观点时,要注意它的精确性,要实事求是,要有明确的目的性,运用时要根据内容的需要,力戒盲目堆砌数字,淹没观点。调查报告可以先摆材料后提观点,也可以先提观点再用材料加以说明。有时虽不明显地提出观点,但可以从阐述中看出观点。不管用什么样的方法,一定要做到观点与材料的高度统一,以便更好地表现主题。
 
  四、重点题型及解题方法
 
  1.调查报告的鉴赏评价。
 
  “评价文本的主要观点和基本倾向”。“文本的主要观点和基本倾向”主要是调查者的观点,必须认真梳理,全面把握其要素和倾向,能找出他们支持自己相关观点的相应材料,分析其逻辑推理的科学性,尤其是对调查报告中的数据进行分析,然后作出自己的价值判断。“评价文本产生的社会价值和影响”。“文本产生的社会价值和影响”可以是正面的也可以是负面的,高考考察一般会以正面的为主。调查报告的题材通常都是针对性极强的,与民生、社情、当前整个社会或某些阶层息息相关,因此会产生较大的社会价值和影响。阅读时要将视野扩大,将文章放到当时社会的大背景中,联系当时社会的政治经济状况、主流思想文化、各阶层的关注程度来进行对照,然后实事求是地进行评价阐释。“对文本的某种特色作深度的思考和判断。”“文本的某种特色”主要落实于文本的思想情感、文本风格、语言特色、设问技巧等方面。“作深度的思考和判断”首先要能指出这种特色,然后联系文章说一说文章为什么要营造这种特色,还要进一步指出这种特色的好处、效果或不足,如果能提出一些建设性的意见就更好。
 
  2.如何对调查报告进行探究。
 
  紧紧把握考试大纲来操作。“从不同的角度和层面发掘文本的深层意蕴”。“不同的角度”可以是正面的角度、反面的角度,当时人的角度、旁观者的角度等等。“不同的层面”指的是文本可达到的层次,如深层、浅层,实用层面、美学层面、哲学层面;可能涉及到的范畴,如政治、经济、科学、文化、风俗、娱乐、艺术、行文等。“发掘文本的深层意蕴”就是要尽量多从上述角度揭示更多的内容。
 
  “探讨文本反映的人生价值和时代精神。”就是要分析归纳出调查对象的人生观,探讨他的人生价值,揭示他的这种人生反映了怎样的时代精神,在当前社会下有什么积极意义。如果是事件调查,则更多应从时代精神的角度进行探究。“探究文本中的疑点和难点,提出自己的见解”。这个考点是考查考生的思维的全面性、深刻性和质疑精神。要善于对有疑问的地方提出怀疑、对难点尽量依据文章或借助工具书试图解决,要善于对文章内容进行辩证分析、提出补充,并在此基础上提出更为科学、合理的观点。
 
  要注意的是,调查报告本身是一种极具科学性的文体,它是在事实的基础上得出观点调查的结果本身就极具科学性一般不能轻易否定。对调查报告进行探究,应更多地从社会价值的角度来思考问题,进行一些社会学的原理,关注民生、经济,有时可以从自身的角度来对问题进行实例分析。
 
 
 
 
3. Reading Methods of Investigation Report
 
 
 
1. Grasp the contents of the investigation report quickly and accurately.
 
 
 
(1) Read the first paragraph of the article quickly and accurately (the beginning part), and grasp the object and content of the investigation.
 
 
 
(2) Read the full text to understand the cause, development and outcome of the event. Pay attention to the details of the event.
 
 
 
(3) Focus on intensive reading of the data collected by some investigators, the part of the investigators'comments, in-depth study of its core content.
 
 
 
(4) Integrating the information in the text, grasping the structure of the article and summarizing the central meaning are the same as other types of article interpretation and analysis methods.
 
 
 
2. Attention should be paid to the unity of views and materials in the investigation report. The investigation report expresses the viewpoint in the narration, that is, on the basis of factual materials, it draws the viewpoint. Therefore, we should pay attention to the unity of material and viewpoint in reading.
 
 
 
(1) Use one or more typical materials to illustrate the point of view. We should pay attention to the typicality of materials, and also pay attention to the internal logical relationship of materials, and explain the viewpoints from different angles and sides.
 
 
 
(2) Use contrastive materials to highlight points of view. This kind of contrast can be compared with the past, the new and the old, the positive and the negative, the success or failure, etc. By comparing different aspects of different things, we can better highlight the characteristics of things, better distinguish between right and wrong, and highlight the point of view. Contrast can also be specific facts, statistics and percentages.
 
 
 
(3) Use precise figures to directly illustrate the point of view. Basic statistics and percentages can reflect the appearance and essence of things and enhance persuasion. When using statistics to explain opinions, we should pay attention to its accuracy, seek truth from facts, have a clear purpose, and use them in accordance with the needs of the content, refrain from blindly piling up numbers and submerging opinions. The survey report can either put forward the material before the viewpoint, or put forward the viewpoint before explaining it with the material. Sometimes opinions are not clearly put forward, but they can be seen from the exposition. Whatever method is used, we must achieve a high degree of unity of ideas and materials in order to better represent the theme.
 
 
 
IV. Key Question Types and Solutions
 
 
 
1. Appreciation and evaluation of investigation report.
 
 
 
"The main viewpoints and basic tendencies of evaluating texts". "The main viewpoints and basic tendencies of the text" are mainly the viewpoints of the investigators. We must carefully sort out and comprehensively grasp its elements and tendencies so as to find out the relevant materials that they support their relevant viewpoints, analyze the scientificity of their logical reasoning, especially the data in the survey report, and then make their own value judgments. "Evaluating the social value and impact of the text". "The social value and influence produced by the text" can be positive or negative. Generally speaking, the college entrance examination is mainly positive. The subject matter of the survey report is usually very pertinent and closely related to people's livelihood, social conditions, the current whole society or certain strata, so it will have greater social value and impact. When reading, we should broaden our horizons, put the articles in the background of the society at that time, and compare them with the political and economic situation of the society at that time, the mainstream ideology and culture, and the attention of all strata. Then we should evaluate and explain them from facts. "Deep thinking and judgment on some characteristics of the text." "Some characteristics of the text" are mainly embodied in the ideological and emotional aspects of the text, text style, language features, questioning skills and so on. "Deep thinking and judgment" should first be able to point out this feature, then contact the article to explain why the article should create this feature, and further point out the advantages, effects or shortcomings of this feature, if we can put forward some constructive suggestions, it will be better.
 
 
 
2. How to explore the investigation report.
 
 
 
Hold tight to the examination outline to operate. "Explore the deep meaning of the text from different perspectives and levels". "Different angles" can be positive, negative, people's, bystanders'and so on. "Different levels" refer to the levels that the text can reach, such as deep, shallow, practical, aesthetic and philosophical levels, and the categories that may be involved, such as politics, economy, science, culture, customs, entertainment, art, writing, etc. "Exploring the deep meaning of the text" is to reveal more content from the above perspective as much as possible.
 
 
 
"Discuss the value of life and the spirit of the times reflected in the text." It is to analyze and summarize the survey's outlook on life, explore his value of life, reveal what kind of spirit of the times his life reflects, and what positive significance it has in the current society. If it is an incident investigation, it should be explored from the perspective of the spirit of the times. "Explore the doubts and difficulties in the text, and put forward their own views". This test point is to test the comprehensiveness, profundity and questioning spirit of the examinee's thinking. We should be good at raising doubts about doubtful places, trying to solve difficult points according to articles or reference books, making dialectical analysis of the contents of articles, proposing supplements, and putting forward more scientific and reasonable views on this basis.
 
 
 
It should be noted that the survey report itself is a very scientific style. It is based on facts that the results of the survey itself are very scientific and can not be easily denied. To explore the investigation report, we should think more from the angle of social value, carry out some sociological principles, pay attention to people's livelihood and economy, and sometimes analyze the problems from our own perspective.
 
 
 

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